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Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases


What is endocrinology?

Endocrinology is a science which refers to endocrine glands and their disorders and treatments. Endocrine glands are organs which pour secretion to be named hormone to blood in order to arrange different functions diversely.

Hypothesis Diseases Disorders related to the over-working of hypophysis:

Hyperprolactinemia :

Hyperprolactinaemia may cause galactorrhea (production and spontaneous flow of breast milk) and disruptions in the normal menstrual period in women and hypogonadism, infertility and erectile dysfunction in men

Acromegaly or gigantism :

Acromegaly most commonly affects adults in middle age,[1] and can result in severe disfigurement, complicating conditions, and premature death if unchecked. Because of its pathogenesis and slow progression, the disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently missed for years until changes in external features, especially of the face, become noticeable

Adenomas secreting FSH or LH

Cushing Disease

Adenoma secreting TSH Disorders related to the insufficient functioning of the hypothesis

Diabetes Insipidus

2. Thyroid Gland Diseases (Goiter)

Hyperthyroidism: If there is too much thyroid hormone, every function of the body tends to speed up. Therefore, some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be nervousness, irritability, increased perspiration, heart racing, hand tremors, anxiety, difficulty sleeping, thinning of the skin, fine brittle hair, and muscular weakness—especially in the upper arms and thighs

Hypothyroidism: is a common endocrine disorder in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as tiredness, poor ability to tolerate cold, and weight gain

Goiter: is a swelling of the neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland (thyromegaly), associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not.


The cancer of thyroid gland

3. Parathyroid Gland Diseases

Hyperparathyroidism: Generally, it is diagnosed by change. After all, tiredness, depression, forgetfulness, reflux or peptic ulcer, constipation, osteoporosis, fracture, muscle pain, hypertension and rhythm disorder can be caused.

Hyperparathyroidism: It causes complaint of calcium lowness generally together with particular findings in some particular situations. These are generally spasm, muscle cramp, hand-foot numbing, famication, rhythm disorders, and complaints like asthma, stomach-ache, faint or epileptic seizure and cataract.

4. Suprarenal gland Diseases:

Cushing syndrome

Primer hyperaldosteronism and pheochromocytoma

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

5. Diseases about genital system

Ovary Function Disorders

Polycystic ovarian syndrome



7. Metabolic bone Disorders


Osteoporosis related to menopause

Male osteoporosis

The other’s osteoporosis

Renal osteodystrophy

Paget’s disease

8. Metabolic Disorders

Hypoglycaemia (Low Blood Glucose)


Lipid Abnormalities

Insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance

9. Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes)

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes related to other reason